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Frequently Asked Questions

Understanding BASE OILS

Almost every lubricant used in plants today started off as just a Base oil. The American Petroleum Institute (API) has categorized base oils into five categories (API 1509, Appendix E). The first three groups are refined from petroleum crude oil. Group IV base oils are full synthetic (polyalphaolefin) oils. Group V is for all other base oils not included in Groups I through IV. Before all the additives are added to the mixture, lubricating oils begin as one or more of these five API groups.

Group I
Group I base oils are classified as less than 90 percent saturates, greater than 0.03 percent sulfur and with a viscosity-index range of 80 to 120. The temperature range for these oils is from 32 to 150 degrees F. Group I base oils are solvent-refined, which is a simpler refining process. This is why they are the cheapest base oils on the market.

Group II
Group II base oils are defined as being more than 90 percent saturates less than 0.03 percent sulfur and with a viscosity index of 80 to 120. They are often manufactured by hydrocracking, which is a more complex process than what is used for Group I base oils. Since all the hydrocarbon molecules of these oils are saturated, Group II base oils have better antioxidation properties. They also have a clearer color and cost more in comparison to Group I base oils. Still, Group II base oils are becoming very common on the market today and are priced very close to Group I oils. http://media.noria.com/sites/magazine_images/201210/josh_graph_oils.jpg

Group III
Group III base oils are greater than 90 percent saturates, less than 0.03 percent sulfur and have a viscosity index above 120. These oils are refined even more than Group II base oils and generally are severely hydrocracked (higher pressure and heat). This longer process is designed to achieve purer base oil. Although made from crude oil, Group III base oils are sometimes described as synthesized hydrocarbons. Like Group II base oils, these oils are also becoming more prevalent.

Group IV
Group IV base oils are polyalphaolefins (PAOs). These synthetic base oils are made through a process called synthesizing. They have a much broader temperature range and are great for use in extreme cold conditions and high heat applications.

Group V
Group V base oils are classified as all other base oils, including silicone, phosphate ester, polyalkylene glycol (PAG), polyolester, biolubes, etc. These base oils are at times mixed with other base stocks to enhance the oil’s properties. An example would be a PAO-based compressor oil that is mixed with a polyolester. Esters are common Group V base oils used in different lubricant formulations to improve the properties of the existing base oil. Ester oils can take more abuse at higher temperatures and will provide superior detergency compared to a PAO synthetic base oil, which in turn increases the hours of use.

Info & Expert Advice

WHY LUBRICANTS ?
Inside the engine, metal parts move very rapidly in contact with each other, causing frictional heat. Unless this friction is reduced, the engine will fail. Thats where Engine Oil / Lubricants play their role. The engine oils main job is to reduce friction by forming a film on the metal surfaces, which ultimately protects the engine. Other main functions are:

LUBE FUNCTIONS:
- Enables smooth engine operation by reducing friction between engine parts.
- Helps prevent overheating by carrying away heat from the inside of the engine. Thus the engine remains below the harmful heat level.
- Keeps the inside of the engine clean by carrying away contaminants (products of combustion, etc).
- Prevents leaking of combustion gases by filling gaps between the piston ring and cylinder wall.
- Rust & Corrosion Prevention to ensure a long life operation of engine.

WHAT TO CHOOSE?
There are a lot of engine oil types available in the market. But not every type is recommended to be used in every vehicle. To obtain the performance required of engine oil, additives with various functions are added to a highly refined oil.And thats what determines the type of any Engine Oil.

Diesel engines tend to produce more acid than gasoline engines. They therefore require special oil containing a strong alkalizing agent to neutralize acidity, and a high performance cleaning agent that prevents carbon from sticking to high-temperature parts.

Engine oil is essential to the proper operation of engines running under the severe conditions of high temperature and high speed.

Diesel engine oil is particularly susceptible to contamination by soot and by the by-products of diesel fuel constituents (oxidized and carbonized substances),promoting its deterioration. Therefore, unless the specified engine oil is used, engine problems tend to increase.

CHANGE IS NECESSARY:
Todays engines are efficient and sophisticated machines, often using turbo-charged,multiple camshafts and other features. They also run faster and hotter, placing tremendous demands on motor oil performance.

Thais why it is essential to follow a strict oil-and-filter-change schedule for your car;Changing the oil and filter remove harmful contaminants that may build up in your oil.

Afresh supply of oil with its specially selected additives will restore the protection your engine needs against corrosion, gum deposits, excessive wear and other problems. Generally, the oil and filter should be changed every 5,000 km. or 3 months, but check your Owner’s Manual to be sure.

It is highly recommended to check your oil about every 1000 km. It helps you to prevent many certain problems related to the performance of your vehicle. A regular checking habit is the best practice, especially before every long journey.

PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT:
It’s better to Change your Engine Oil from Specialized and Authorized Motor workshops. However, if you change engine oil of your vehicle by yourself, make sure that you do keep these most important facts in mind.

- Dont dump used oil on the ground, down drains or in sewers.
- Dont mix used oil with any other liquid.
- For a safe disposal, place used oil in a clean plastic container with a secure lid and take it to a collection point for disposal or recycling.

Choosing The Right Oil

The various types of motor oil on the market are designed for different purposes. With so much depending on your oils performance, it’s important to select the right oil for your engine’s needs. The API(American Petroleum Institute) Mark identifies oils which have passed a comprehensive series of performance tests and product quality audits. It also represents the level of technology used for the formulation of the stated lubricant. These tests verify the ability of the oil to perform virtually every task expected of it in your engine. Which includes, minimizing engine wear& tear, preventing corrosion and the build-up of deposits.

By choosing oil with the API Certification mark, you actually are extending the life of your engine, reducing the chance of engine failure, and helping it maintain emission standards to fight pollution.

To choose the proper type of oil for your vehicle, you need to understand the significance of the oil additives, viscosity ratings, and classification codes.

Oil additives: To help the oil keep your engine cool, clean, and corrosion-free, refiners blend in various additives, which can account for as much as 25 percent of the cost of the oil.

Viscosity ratings: Oil is rated and identified by its viscosity, which determines its ability to flow. Two types of oil are on the market: single-viscosity oil and multi-viscosity oil.

Almost every vehicle is designed to run on multi-viscosity oil. The lower the number, the thinner the oil and the more easily it flows. In 10W-40 oil, for example, the two numbers mean that it’s a multi-viscosity oil. The 10W is an index that refers to how the oil flows at low temperatures (in winter); 40 refer to how it flows at high temperatures.
To find out which viscosity to choose for your vehicle, look in your owner’s manual for an oil viscosity chart.

Oil classification codes: The starburst symbol on an oil container label means that the oil meets the current engine protection standard and fuel economy requirements of the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC), a joint effort of U.S. and Japanese automobile manufacturers.

All About Oil

Lubricant aka Lube, is typically a viscous substance introduced between two moving surfaces to reduce the friction and wear between them. The property of reducing friction is known as lubricity (or slipperiness). It may also have the function of transmitting forces, transporting foreign particles, or heating or cooling the surfaces. More than 75 million tons of lubricants are consumed worldwide annually of which, automotive engine lubricants comprise approximately 50% and Hydraulic fluids with Transmission oils comprise 30% of it.
Typically lubricants contain between 85 & 90% base oil (most often petroleum fractions, called mineral oils) and approximately, 10 to 15% additives. Vegetable or synthetic fluids are sometimes used as base oils. Additives deliver reduced friction and wear, increased viscosity, resistance to corrosion and aging, etc. Sodium and lithium based additives are used in automotive greases to stabilize the grease against high temperatures. This is particularly important in the grease used to pack wheel bearings, and especially those used with disc braking systems.

A good lubricant generally possesses the following characteristics:

· high boiling point and low freezing point (in order to stay liquid within a wide range of temperature)
· High viscosity index
· Thermal stability
· Hydraulic stability
· Demulsibility
· Corrosion prevention
· High resistance to oxidation.

LUBE vs FRICTION:
Lubricants are typically used to separate moving parts in a system. This has the benefit of reducing friction and surface fatigue, together with reduced heat generation, operating noise and vibrations. Lubricants achieve this in several ways. The most common is by forming a physical barrier i.e., a thin layer of lubricant separates the moving parts. This is analogous to hydro planning, the loss of friction observed when a car tire is separated from the road surface by moving through standing water. This is termed hydrodynamic lubrication. In cases of high surface pressures or temperatures, the fluid film is much thinner and some of the forces are transmitted between the surfaces through the lubricant.

Typically the lubricant-to-surface friction is much less than surface-to-surface friction in a system without any lubrication. Thus use of a lubricant reduces the overall system friction. Reduced friction has the benefit of reducing heat generation and reduced formation of wear particles as well as improved efficiency. Lubricants may contain additives known as friction modifiers that chemically bind to metal surfaces to reduce surface friction even when there is insufficient bulk lubricant present for hydrodynamic lubrication, e.g. protecting the valve train in a car engine at start-up.

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